Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2017, Page: 97-105
The Patterns of Interferon-Gamma and Interleukin-10 Production as a Potential Immunological Biomarker for the Outcome of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection
Benson Olu Akinshipe, Departments of Medical Microbiology, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University & Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada, Nigeria
Friday Alfred Ehiaghe, Department of Hematology, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria; Lahor Research Laboratory and Medical Centre, Benin City, Nigeria
Anthony Chukwuka Nwaobi, Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria
Emmanuel Babatunde Adedeji, Environmental Biology Research Unit, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Herbert Obi Okpala, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria
Received: Dec. 5, 2017;       Accepted: Dec. 13, 2017;       Published: Jan. 16, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.iji.20170506.12      View  1606      Downloads  90
Abstract
Deficiencies in current tuberculosis (TB) immunodiagnostics pipeline demand new approaches to control TB. Because the balance in key pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines production could determine Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTb) infection outcome, this study aimed to determine the patterns of MTb-specific antigen-stimulated Interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in different clinical forms of MTb infection and to evaluate their concomitant changes during anti-TB treatment (ATT). Overall, 84 BCG-vaccinated HIV-negative adults, consisting of 25 Healthy Community Controls (HCC), 27 Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) cases, and a cohort of 32 Acute Pulmonary Tuberculosis (APTB) patients were investigated for IFN-y and IL-10 responses at enrollment (base-line) and during ATT at 2-month (ATT1) and 6-month (ATT2). At enrollment, groups didn’t differ significantly in age, gender, or CD4+ T counts but differed in the other socio-demographics, and hematological parameters, p<0.05. Base-line Sandwich ELISA – measured IFN-y responses were significantly higher in HCC (223.50±58.11pg/ml) compared with LTBI (128.82±41.81pg/ml) and APTB (47.82±22.05pg/ml), p<0.0001 in each case. During treatment, IFN-y levels increased significantly at ATT1 (125.37±16.09pg/ml) and ATT2 (203.35±23.24pg/ml), p<0.0001. Conversely, base-line IL-10 responses increased significantly in APTB (17.53±6.30pg/ml), compared with LTBI (10.71±2.39pg/ml) and HCC (7.49±2.02pg/ml), P<0.0001, but declined significantly at ATT1 (10.54±2.25pg/ml) and ATT2 (5.25±1.45pg/ml), P=<0.0001. Cytokines response combination ratio showed: ‘High’ HCC, ‘Intermediate’ LTBI, or ‘Low’ APTB ratio that increased during successful ATT; the two identified MDR-TB patients recorded fluctuating but constantly low ratio during ATT. These results demonstrate the immunocompetence of MTb-exposed adults, and that IFN-y and IL-10 cytokines cross-regulate, and strongly suggest a shift toward IFN-y-mediated pro-inflammatory host immune phenotype during effective control of MTb infection. The IFN-y/IL-10 response ratio is a novel potential immunological biomarker to assess if MTb infection is going to resolve, result in latency, progress to TB; or become drug-resistant.
Keywords
Adults, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection, Immunodiagnostics, Cytokines Production Ratio, TB Control
To cite this article
Benson Olu Akinshipe, Friday Alfred Ehiaghe, Anthony Chukwuka Nwaobi, Emmanuel Babatunde Adedeji, Herbert Obi Okpala, The Patterns of Interferon-Gamma and Interleukin-10 Production as a Potential Immunological Biomarker for the Outcome of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection, International Journal of Immunology. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2017, pp. 97-105. doi: 10.11648/j.iji.20170506.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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